Barcelona's defenders guilds in 1714 (Part I)
The defense of the city of Barcelona during the Bourbon's 1714 was not only carried out by the army and the military, but the people of the city that had other professions, aside to support the Austrian cause.
This is the case of artisans, grouped into guilds defended different parts of the city to keep it standing. This urban militia was the Colonel of Barcelona .
On this route, we present the first part of two related routes, and will continue in the footsteps of the guilds of the city dedicated to food, defense points they had, plus the history and characteristics.
In the second route find other trades union city during 1714.
What is a guild?
A guild is an association formed by a group of people doing the same job.
Different guilds: butchers, carpenters, bakers, etc.. Formerly the guilds that existed were characterized by the trades carried out. This would have made ??the guild of sailors, the gardeners of the wax candlesticks, among many others that we will see along the route.
These guilds were intended to bring together people who had the same job for different reasons: to agree the prices of products, create specific rules and enforce them, train future professionals, etc..
The importance of the guilds became increasingly stronger. The city thrived on these to develop its economy. Entering a guild behaved obtain privileges, yet, get in was an arduous task.
History of Guilds
To find the origin of the guilds have to travel to Babylon. There, the code of Hammurabi and talking about them. However, the boom of guilds emerges from the Middle Ages, as cities with a large number of workshops, teachers and learners.
The control in the regulation of the production rules, prices, control trade and to enter the competition and learning structure between master and apprentice, were the keys to the functioning of the guilds.
However, over the years certain disputes arose between them, especially working conditions and control of the market that was subject to the conditions of the urban oligarchy formed mainly by traders and merchants.
The unions today
Today, there are still some unions actively operating in Catalonia, as this is a tradition that has endured.
Many, if not most, of those who see in this route and do not currently exist and others that have emerged more recently, such as the Screen Actors Guild or carriers.
One of the most active associations is the pie that has become his crusade Keeping the traditions alive such as panellet, coca llardons (chicharrones), nougats, the Kings' cake or Easter cakes, while side bases forming guilds mentioned above.
In the early eighteenth century, the butchery was considered a craft little valued. In fact, many butchers were removed from government and church. This situation changed in the last third of the century.
The guild of butchers retail spaces available meat. The municipality is responsible, together with the provision of butchers meat. Often, there was also the middlemen as breeders or resellers.
The task butcher was not considered a noble work, and who were responsible for killing and skinning cattle and sometimes, if there was no executioner available, also in charge of hanging convicted.
The task of the butchers' guild during the siege of Barcelona was the defense of the wall between the bastion of Santa Clara and the Portal Nou. Bulwark of Santa Clara was located almost in the center of the current Ciutadella Park. Was scenario one of the toughest battles of the resistance, losing many troops, but the attacking side also suffered heavy casualties and, finally could not be conquered not be attacked again until the end of the battle.
The guild of butchers belonged to the battalion headquarters and San Severo was in the Convent of San Francisco de Asís (see the route of The coronelas and battalions ).
Guild adroguers and confectioners
During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Adroguer name meant "merchant of drugs," perhaps because he engaged in the sale of these "sinful as leading to vice to anyone who tries" products.
In fact, you could only make and sell chocolate if it was part of the guild. Its development, called "grief" was made ??both in store and in private homes. For this reason, it was common to find adroguers and confectioners in the streets of the city.
The Guild of grocery stores and confectioners, who was part of the battalion of the Holy Trinity and the Colonel had headquarters in the church of Santa María del Mar (see the path of The coronelas and battalions ) and stood guard in Montjuïc. Montjuïc was a place of major importance, as it was a strategic point for your situation and, therefore, was a military target in the making. The Convento de Santa Madrona, located on the way to the castle of Montjuïc, received the attack of the Bourbon troops several times: in 1705, 1706 and finally the 1713 to 1714. Today, instead, there is a small chapel.
Rise of the Castle of Montjuïc what we find in medieval times, when the building had served as a watchtower for boats.
In 1640 the first fortress that will form a quadrangular and in each of its corners have a small bastion of defense is built. But it was not until 1694 that fortification becomes castle. Lagging the inside and small fortification is surrounded by a fort with three bastions overlooking the inland territory and a linear strip of jagged shape facing the sea.
Its location, about 200 meters above sea level mountain of Montjuïc, has made ??over time has been a key point in the battles. In the case of site Barcelona 1714, Montjuïc Castle was one of the last strengths of Habsburg, and that was not delivered to the Bourbon troops until September 12 at 5 pm, after receiving impositions that the Duke of Berwick had sent the same day.
The name comes from Montjuïc Jewish cemetery that was on the mountain (Jewish mountain) and it was abandoned in the fourteenth century, after the destruction of the Jewish quarter of the city of Barcelona .
For many years, once left his role of military fortification, it worked as a military museum. Currently, however, it is a municipal facility to the City Council of the city.
Guild Portal Nou gardeners
In Barcelona there were two guilds gardeners. Nou Portal and Portal San Antonio latter was the natural entrance of the royal road to the Llobregat At the end of the conflict, was a party less affected and it was from this. point where Rafael Casanova called to fight in the defeat of Sept. 11, 1714.
The guild of gardeners in the Portal Nou was the defender of the wall between the bastion of Santa Clara and Portal Nou. El Portal Nou was located on the north side of Paseo Lluís Companys, which linked to the aforementioned bastion of Santa Clara Located in the Parque de la Ciutadella.
The guild had its headquarters in the Convent of San Francisco de Asís (see the path of The coronelas and battalions ) and was part of the battalion of Colonel San Severo.
The gardeners were landowners working with irrigated crop was provided through the Rec Comtal wells.
When they were holding patterns decorated with lettuce, tomatoes and peppers and they wore green candles. In fact, during the Bourbon site, were dressed in green, as this was the color they identified them.
Guild bakeries and bakers
The bakers oven and managers were under the same trade, although their work was different. The office of Baker is dedicated to knead, bake and sell bread; however, the work of the baker is baking bread and cakes that individuals took their ovens.
The guild of bakers and bakers was part of the battalion and the Immaculate Conception of Mary Immaculate of the Colonel, who always stood guard at the crossing and had its headquarters in the Convent of Santa Clara (see route The coronelas and battalions ).
For the presentation of the tercentenary, this guild has done a pan with some flour and cooking similar to those used in 1714.